Saturday, December 7, 2013

Major Macromolecules Proteins

Of all biological molecules, proteins are the most diverse in both structure and function. A tremendous number of different proteins, including some structural types, actively participate in all processes that sustain life. Amazingly, cells can make all of the thousands of different kinds of proteins they need from only twenty kinds of monomers called amino acids. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.

Functions of Proteins

Main functions of Protein
  1.  Protein's main function is to build, maintain and repair all our body tissues, such as muscles, organs, skin and hair.
  2. Protein can also be used as energy source by body, but this usually only happens when carbohydrate and fat stores are in short supply.
Biological function of Protein
1. Protein acts as storage material of food and energy.
2. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions, and are vital to metabolism.
3. Proteins are molecular instrument through which genetic information is expressed.
4. They act as antibodies to prevent disease.
5. The milk proteins help the growth of infant mammals.
6. Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells.
7. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism.
8. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape.
9. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle.
10. Proteins are also necessary in animals’ diets, since animals cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that are then used in metabolism.