Saturday, January 4, 2014

Lungs and gas exchange

Lungs and gas exchange

The primary function of the lungs is to provide oxygen to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide to outside. Respiration includes two phases:  (i) inspiration  (ii) expiration
Inspiration means supply of oxygen from the atmosphere to the tissue space through respiratory tract and blood.
Expiration means transport of carbon dioxide from the tissue space to atmosphere through respiratory tract and blood.
The respiratory system is made of                                          
(i)                 Lungs: gas exchanging organ                         
(ii)               Chest wall & respiratory muscle→ increase & decrease the size of the thoracic cavity
(iii)              Areas in the brain → control the muscles

Alveoli AND Respiratory Zone

      Polyhedral in shape and clustered like units of honeycomb.
      ~ 300 million air sacs (alveoli).

     Large surface area (60–80 m2).
     Each alveolus is 1 cell layer thick.
      Total air barrier is 2 cells across (2 mm).
      Respiratory Zone: Region of gas exchange between air  and blood.
     Includes respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs.
     Must contain alveoli.

Gas Exchange in Lungs

Gas Exchange in Lungs

How tissue gets oxygen and release carbon dioxide
How Red Cells carry oxygen :
Partial Pressures of Gases in Blood
When a liquid or gas (blood and alveolar air) are at equilibrium, the amount of gas dissolved in fluid reaches a maximum value (Henry’s Law)
Depends upon:
Solubility of gas in the fluid
Temperature of the fluid
Partial pressure of the gas
[Gas] dissolved in a fluid depends directly on its partial pressure in the gas mixture
How tissue gets oxygen and release carbon dioxide
         At normal P02 arterial blood is about 100 mm Hg.
         P02 level in the systemic veins is about 40 mm Hg.
         PC02 is 46 mm Hg in the systemic veins.
Gas Exchange in Lungs

Excretory System and Urinary system includes

Excretory System 

Kidneys are the excretory organ of our body. These are the major component of urinary system 

Urinary system includes                                          

  • The paired kidneys lie on either side of the vertebral column below the diaphragm and live. Each adult kidney weighs about 160 g and is about 11 cm long and 5 to 7 cm wide. Kidney is formation of urine. 
  • Ureters transport of urine from kidneys to urinary bladder  
  • Urinary bladder…reservoir of urine  
  • Urethra...passage of urine from urinary bladder to outside (In females, the urethra is 4 cm (1.5  in) long In males, the urethra is about 20 cm (8 in) longEach kidney contains about one million Nephrones which are the structural & functional unit of kidneys.)

How kidneys clean blood

The primary function of the kidneys is regulation of the extracellular fluid (plasma and interstitial fluid) environment in the body. Accomplished by the formation of Urine.

Kidney Functions

1. The volume of blood plasma (and thus contribute significantly to the regulation of blood pressure);
2. The concentration of waste products in the blood;
3. The concentration of electrolytes (Na+, K+,HCO3and other ions) in the plasma; and
4. The pH of plasma

Excretion of excess unnecessary substances & metabolic waste products Osmoregulation Regulation of      

(i) water & electrolyte balances
(ii) acid-base balances
(iii) blood pressure
(iv) red cell production

How kidneys clean blood

Kidneys clean blood by filtering it. They filter all our blood 300 times a day. The filtering is done by over a million tubes packed into each kidney. These tubes are called nephrones.  Some people’s kidneys are not very good at filtering blood. Kidney machines help by filtering blood for them.

Digestion and food sources

The process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body. Mechanical & chemical breakdown of food into nutrients are called digestion.
Four main macromolecules in food: nucleic acids, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are broken down into smaller molecules of nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol, and simple sugars. Being absorbed important minerals, vitamins, and water are also extract from food during the process of digestion.

Food Sources

Biologists categorize animals into three groups based on their food source.

  • Herbivores obtain all food from plants. Examples: cows, horses, and nearly all rodents.
  • Carnivores obtain all food from meat. Examples: cats, eagles, wolves, and frogs.
  • Omnivores obtain food from both plants and meat.      
Examples: humans and bears. An animal’s digestive system is specifically suited to processing food obtained from its food source. For example, herbivores’ digestive systems are equipped to break down plant material, and carnivores’ are not.

What is a digestive system and how does its structure reflect its function?

Digestive systems mechanically and chemically degrade food into small molecules that can be absorbed, along with water, into the internal environment. These systems also expel the undigested residues from the body. Incomplete digestive systems are a saclike cavity with one opening. Complete digestive systems are a tube with two openings and regional specializations in between. Structural variations in bills, teeth, and regions of the gut are adaptations that allow an animal to exploit a particular type or types of foods.

Digestive system (Tract)

The digestive tract is the area where digestion takes place.
         The digestive tract varies widely in complexity from species to species.
         The most primitive form found in nematodes is simply a tubular gut with no specialized features.
         The slightly more advanced digestive tract found in earthworms includes specialized areas for ingestion, storage, fragmentation, digestion, and absorption.
         The most advanced digestive tracts, found among the vertebrates, exhibit specialization on a much greater scale.

What are the components of the human digestive system?

What are the components of the human digestive system?
Humans have a complete digestive system. Swallowing forces food and water from the mouth into the pharynx. Food continues through an esophagus to the stomach. Food processing starts in the mouth. Most digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine. The colon absorbs most of the remaining water and ions, which causes the wastes to compact. The rectum briefly stores the wastes before they are expelled through the anus.The liver and pancreas have an accessory role in digestion. They produce substances that are secreted into the small intestine.

Human Digestive system


The human alimentary canal: The alimentary canal begins at the mouth and the pharynx.
From here, food travels down a muscular tube called the esophagus and into the stomach. The stomach connects to the small intestine, which in turn connects to the large intestine. Some form of mechanical and chemical digestion breaks down food at every step along this tube and Nutrients are absorbed across the walls of both intestines. All products remaining after food travels through the large intestine are waste, which exit the body through the anus.
Saliva: Contains water, salt and an enzyme called salivary amylase. Salivary amylase breaks down starch into smaller sugars. Contains buffers, substances that neutralize acidic foods. Antibacterial substances that kill bacteria in the food. Also eases the passage of food through the pharynx and esophagus.
The Esophagus The esophagus shuttles food from the pharynx (part of mouth) to the stomach. The muscles surrounding the esophagus perform peristalsis, the rhythmic and stepwise contraction of muscle that forces food to move along the esophageal passage. Sphincter muscles at each end prevent backflow.
The Stomach A saclike organ. Inner surface is highly convoluted, allowing it to fold up when empty and expand when full. Digestion occurs in the stomach as gastric juice, is secreted by gastric glands located in the stomach lining. Gastric juice is an acidic mixture of enzymes and mucus. Gastric glands are composed of two types of cells: 
Parietal cells: secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen, the precursor to the enzyme pepsin.
Protein digestion is initiated by the acidic environment of the stomach. The HCl, lowers the acidity of the gastric juice to a pH level of 2. Low pH levels are necessary for pepsinogen to be converted into the active digestive enzyme pepsin, which further breaks down food proteins. If chief cells were to secrete pepsin directly into the stomach, the pepsin would digest the cells themselves. Additionally, mucus lines the stomach walls and prevents it from being digested. A mixture of gastric acid and partially digested food called chyme passes out of the stomach.

The Upper Digestive Tract

What happens to food in the mouth?
Teeth mechanically break food into smaller particles. Enzymes in saliva begin the chemical digestion of carbohydrates and fats.

What are the functions of the stomach?

The stomach receives food from the esophagus and stretches to store it.Stomach contractions break up food and mix it with gastric fluid. They also move the resulting mixture (the chyme) into the small intestine.Chemical digestion of proteins begins in the stomach.

The oral cavity (Digestion in Mouth):  Mouth, the teeth. the tongue, Salivary Glands.
 The teeth: break food into smaller pieces to expose more of the food’s surface area to digestive enzymes.
 The tongue: a muscle used to manipulate food and form it into a bolus, a round, easy-to swallow ball.
Salivary glands: secrete mucous saliva.

Most Chemical Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine

How does the structure of the small intestine affect its function?
 The surface of the small intestine is highly folded and each fold has many projections (villi). Brush border cells at the surface of a villus have tiny projections (microvilli) at their surface. The many folds and projections greatly increase the surface area for the two functions of the small intestine—digestion and absorption.
Dudenum :It’s a tube of about 30 cm long :
        Receives bile via bile duct from the liver
        Receives pancreatic juice from the pancreas, through the pancreatic duct
        Releases digestive juice from its walls. This intestinal juice contains protease and the enzyme lipase for fat digestion

The Small Intestine

Duodenum: Controls the release of food into the small intestine
Most of the chemical breakdown (Digestion) and absorption of Food takes place here. Bile salts break down fats in the chyme while pancreatic fluid, composed of bicarbonate, neutralizes the acid. The small intestine also contains a host of enzymes that help digest various food molecules. The enzymes present in the small intestine and their functions are outline in the table below.
Pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, lactase ------Starch
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase,carboxypeptidase ------Protein 
Nucleases------ Nucleic acids 
Bile salts, lipase ------Fats

What are the roles of the small intestine?

Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine. Enzymes from the pancreas and enzymes embedded in the membrane of brush border cells break large molecules into smaller absorbable subunits. Small subunits (monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and monoglycerides) enter the internal environment when they are absorbed into the intersitial fluid in a villus. Most fluid that enters the gut is also absorbed across the wall of the small intestine.

The Small Intestine

  • The small intestine is split into three sections: the duodenum (30 Cm), jejunum (2.5m), and the ileum(2-4m).

  • Chemical digestion takes place in the duodenum and the jejunum.

  • The ileum, the final section of the small intestine, is where most absorption of the nutrients takes place.

  • Small projections called villi cover the ileum walls.

  • Cells lining the villi are covered in folds of plasma membrane that form even smaller projections called microvilli.

  • Villi and microvilli increase the ileum’s surface area, providing more surface across which nutrients can be absorbed.

  • Nutrients pass through capillaries in the lining of the villi and into the bloodstream, where they circulate first to the liver, then throughout the rest of the body.

  • Villi and microvilli projections also contain digestive enzymes to further digest food. 

Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

Figure description

Enzymes break polysaccharides down to simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are actively transported into brush border cells, then out into interstitial fluid. Proteins are broken into polypeptides, then amino acids. Amino acids are actively transported into brush border cells, then out into interstitial fluid.

1.      In the small intestine, carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, or simple sugars .

2.      This process began in the mouth, where salivary amylase broke polysaccharides into disaccharides (two-unit sugars). A pancreatic amylase carries out the same reaction in the small intestine. Disaccharides are substrates for enzymes embedded in the plasma membrane of the brush border cells. The enzymes split disaccharides into monosaccharides. For example, sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose subunits. Lactase splits lactose into glucose and galactose. Monosaccharides are actively transported into a brush border cell, then out into the interstitial fluid inside a villus. From here they enter the blood.

Protein Digestion and Absorption

3.      Protein digestion began in the stomach, where pepsin broke proteins into polypeptides. It is completed in the small intestine.

4.      The pancreas secretes proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin that break polypeptides into peptide fragments. Enzymes at the surface of the brush border cell break these fragments into amino acids. Like monosaccharides, amino acids are actively transported into brush border cells, then out into the interstitial fluid. From here they enter the blood.

5.       Movements of the intestinal wall break up fat globules into small droplets. Bile salts coat the droplets, so that globules cannot form again.

6.       Pancreatic enzymes digest the droplets to fatty acids and monoglycerides.

7.      Monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse across the plasma membrane's lipid bilayer, into brush border cells.
8.      A In a brush border cell, the products of fat digestion form triglycerides, which associate with proteins.  I he resulting lipoproteins are then expelled by exocytosis into the interstitial fluid inside the villus.

The Large Intestine

Food from the small intestine empties into the large intestine, or colon. No digestion and only a small percentage of absorption take place in the large intestine. The large intestine primarily functions to concentrate waste material into a form called feces. Movements of the large intestine compact feces and move it into the rectum, where it is exited from the body through either the anus. Feces is expelled from the body through the voluntary movements of muscles surrounding the rectum.

Rectum: Muscular storage chamber where the undigested food (feces) is held and molded before being pushed through anus during expulsion.

Anus: The exit of alimentary canal, it is closed by a ring of muscle (the anal sphincter). The ring is relaxed during expulsion of feces.

What are the functions of the large intestine?

By absorbing water and mineral ions, the colon compacts undigested residues and other wastes as feces, which are siored briefly in the rectum before expulsion.

Accessory organs

         Produce and store digestive chemicals
         Food does not pass through these

         Liver - Produces bile; Stores glucose as glycogen & releases glucose into blood stream
         Gallbladder - Stores bile, Squirts bile into small intestine when fat arrives
         Pancreas - Makes enzymes. Empties into small intestine
         Pancreatic juice: enzymes, bicarbonate
         Insulin and glucagon secreted directly into blood
         Insulin: Enables cells to use glucose (glucose enters cells) & promotes formation of glycogen in liver     
         Glucagons: Signals to the liver to convert glycogen into glucose & release it into the bloodstream

Liver Functions

    1. Forms bile (assists fat digestion), rids body of excess cholesterol and blood's respiratory pigments
    2. Controls amino acid levels in the blood; converts potentially toxic ammonia to urea
    3. Controls glucose level in blood; major reservoir for glycogen
    4. Removes hormones that served their functions from blood
    5. Removes ingested toxins, such as alcohol, from blood
    6. Breaks down worn-out and dead red blood cells, and stores iron
    7. Stores some vitamins                


         Lies between the stomach and duodenum
         It secretes pancreatic juice which passes to the duodenum to help in digestion
        Amylase – for digesting starch
        Protease – protein
        Lipase – fat