Saturday, January 4, 2014

Accessory organs

         Produce and store digestive chemicals
         Food does not pass through these

         Liver - Produces bile; Stores glucose as glycogen & releases glucose into blood stream
         Gallbladder - Stores bile, Squirts bile into small intestine when fat arrives
         Pancreas - Makes enzymes. Empties into small intestine
         Pancreatic juice: enzymes, bicarbonate
         Insulin and glucagon secreted directly into blood
         Insulin: Enables cells to use glucose (glucose enters cells) & promotes formation of glycogen in liver     
         Glucagons: Signals to the liver to convert glycogen into glucose & release it into the bloodstream

Liver Functions

    1. Forms bile (assists fat digestion), rids body of excess cholesterol and blood's respiratory pigments
    2. Controls amino acid levels in the blood; converts potentially toxic ammonia to urea
    3. Controls glucose level in blood; major reservoir for glycogen
    4. Removes hormones that served their functions from blood
    5. Removes ingested toxins, such as alcohol, from blood
    6. Breaks down worn-out and dead red blood cells, and stores iron
    7. Stores some vitamins                

Pancreas

         Lies between the stomach and duodenum
         It secretes pancreatic juice which passes to the duodenum to help in digestion
        Amylase – for digesting starch
        Protease – protein
        Lipase – fat