Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Nucleic acids and classification

Nucleic acids are complex organic polymers that store and transfer genetic information within a cell. Inside a cell, they are the source of genetic information stored as chromosomes. Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis.

Two types:
a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-double helix)
b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand)
DNA serves as genetic material, whereas RNA plays a vital role in using genetic information to dictate the amino acid sequence to manufacture proteins.

Each Nucleotides are composed of 3 parts:
1- phosphate group (P)
2- pentose sugar (5-carbon)
3- nitrogenous bases: These can be any one of five types given below-
• adenine (A)
• thymine (T) (DNA only)
• uracil (U) (RNA only)
• cytosine (C)
• guanine (G)